MYRON M. LEVINE, M.D., D.T.P.H., is Director of the Center for Vaccine Development, Head - Division of Geographic Medicine, Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics, Microbiology and Immunology, and Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. Dr. Levine is one of the most vocal advocates of mucosal immunization, i.e., the administration of vaccines by oral and intranasal routes to avoid the unpleasantness and occasional dangers of parenteral injections. His laboratory research focusses on construction and characterization of attenuated strains of Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars and Shigella to serve as live oral vaccines and as live vectors for the expression of foreign antigens. He has made substantial contributions in basic vaccinology, bacterial pathogenesis, clinical research, field epidemiology and public health. He currently sits on editorial boards of several major research journals, is consultant to many organizations including the World Health Organization, NIH, Institute of Medicine and the U.S. Department of Defense. Dr. Levine has authored/co-authored 558 scientific articles, 115 chapters and is Senior Editor of New Generation Vaccines, 4th ed. published in 2010. His many awards include the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal Award for lifetime achievement in vaccine development and implementation, ASM’s 2012 Maurice Hilleman/Merck Award for contributions to pathogenesis, vaccine discovery and development, and control of vaccine preventable diseases, and election into the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science.